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  National Defense Science, Technology and Industry
Description£º  

Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense

China's defense-related science, technology and industry is the state's strategic industry, and the important industrial and technologi-cal foundation for national defense modernization, as well as a major driving force for the development of the national economy, science and technology. China builds and develops its defense-related science, technology and industry independently, enhances the overall level and economic efficiency of defense-related science, technology and industry, and promotes the coordinated development of national defense and economy.

The Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense of the PRC is an organ under the State Council in charge of work in this regard.

It is responsible for researching and formulating principles and policies, as well as laws, rules and regulations in respect of the development of defense-related science, technology and industry; deliberating the development plan for defense-related sci-ence, technology and industry, and overseeing the overall planning of and proper connections between defense-related research, production and construction; organizing qualification examination and approval work for research and manufacture of military products; examining and verifying contracts in respect of scientific research and production between the military and the producers; coordinating, supervising and inspecting execution of ordering contracts so as to ensure the produc-tion and supply of military equipment; exercising administration of the nuclear, space, aviation, shipbuilding and weaponry industries; giving guidance to the administration of the military-related electronics sector; organizing, studying and implementing reform of the system of defense-related science, technology and industry; organizing adjustment of the capability, structure and layout of the defense-related science, technology and industry; drawing up plans for investment in fixed as-sets in respect of defense-related science, technology and industry, and for technical transformation and development of defense conversion technologies, and organizing the implementation of such plans; and conducting foreign exchanges and international cooperation in the field of defense-related science, technology and industry.

After decades of development, China has formed a defense-related science, technology and industry system, which is by and large com-plete in disciplines and coordinated with regard to means of research and production; trained and fostered a contingent of professionals with a good mastery of advanced technology and a sound work style; and laid an important material and technological foundation for inde-pendent research and manufacture of military equipment in China.

Currently, China has 11 military industrial group corporations, namely, China National Nuclear Corporation, China Nuclear Engineering and Construction Corporation, China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation, China Aviation Industry Corporation I, China Aviation Industry Corporation II, China State Shipbuilding Corporation, China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, China North Industries Group Corporation, China South Industries Group Corporation, and China Electronic Science and Technology Corporation. Each is responsible for the organization and administration of its R&D and manufacture, and exercising the rights of an investor authorized by the state over state-owned assets in its subordinate enterprises.

China's defense-related science, technology and industry gives pri-ority to the development of new- and high-tech weaponry and equipment, and strives to raise their modernization level. It is im-perative to speed up the adjustment of capability, structure and layout, enhance capability in research and production of new- and high-tech weaponry, streamline the work force of military industry, optimize the industrial layout, and gradually establish a new system of de-fense-related science, technology and industry.

It is imperative to further strengthen the development of defense-related science and technology, promote the progress of science and technology, concen-trate resources to make breakthroughs in a number of key technologies, enhance the capability of self-reliance and innovation and sustained development capability in defense-related science, technology and industry, and strive to achieve leapfrog technological progress.

It is imperative to bring up talented people and create a well-structured contingent of high-caliber people in a whole array of disciplines needed for the development of defense-related science, technology and industry. At present, in China's defense-related science, technology and industry, 141 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering are active, of which 52 are academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 95 are aca-demicians of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and 6 belong to both academies.

The Chinese government has always stressed the peaceful use of military industrial technology, and encouraged and supported defense-related science, technology and industry to bring its techno-logical and human resource advantages into full play, and develop dual-purpose technologies and new- and high-tech industries, and thus promoted the development of the national economy.

 Nuclear power for civil use should be industrialized. Civil aerospace tech-nologies have made remarkable achievements in the applied satellite, carrier rocket, and manned spaceship. The ¡°Long March¡± series of carrier rockets have successfully launched 27 foreign-made satellites, entitling China to a position in the international commercial satellite launching service market. In 1999, 2001 and 2002, China successfully launched in succession three experimental unmanned spaceships, marking a breakthrough for China in mastering basic manned spaceship technology.

This has provided a solid foundation for China to send a manned spaceship into space. The aviation industry for civil use, while strengthening technological research, expanding sub-contracting scope for production, and improving existing plane models, has made important headway in manufacturing gen-eral-purpose aircraft and the "Xinzhou 60" aircraft, and has begun the R&D of new feeder liners. The shipbuilding industry for civil use has already become a highly competitive pillar export industry among China's electromechanical industries. In recent years, China's shipbuilding output has continuously increased, ranking third in the world for seven consecutive years. The accomplished shipbuilding output in 2001 accounted for 6% of the world¡¯s total.

China¡¯s defense-related science, technology and industry endeavors to establish and perfect an organizational system and an operational mechanism tailored to the needs of national defense building and the socialist market economy. It encourages a specialized division of labor, gradually forms a new multi-tiered cooperative system of principal weaponry contractors, sub-contractors and suppliers of parts and components. It also presses forward with the strategic reorganization of military industrial enterprises and institutions, optimizes the alloca-tion of resources, develops core industries, and gradually forms a batch of internationally competitive conglomerates.

It makes efforts to deepen the reform of military industrial enterprises, establish a mod-ern enterprise system, and push forward the diversification of investors of the enterprises and transformation of operational mechanisms so as to enable these enterprises to turn into market competitors operating independently and responsible for their own profits or losses. The defense-related science, technology and industry stresses the reform of its sci-tech system, strengthens the organic inte-gration of production, education and research, and transforms the defense-related science and technology into actual productivity. In ad-dition, the defense-related science, technology and industry adheres to opening-up, and actively participates in international exchanges and cooperation in line with the principles of the complementarity of each other¡¯s strengths, reciprocity, mutual benefit and common develop-ment.

Land and Sea Border Defense

China pursues a policy of good neighborliness and friendship. It de-fends and administers its land borders and seas under its jurisdiction, safeguards the country's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, and secures both its land and sea borders strictly in ac-cordance with treaties and agreements it has signed with neighboring countries, and the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea.

China advocates settling unresolved border and maritime demarcation issues through negotiation, and demarcating maritime boundaries with neighboring countries or countries contiguous to opposite coasts based on the principle of equity, and opposes the use of force or provocative acts. China has solved or basically solved boundary issues left over by history with most of its adjacent countries. In December 2000, China and Viet Nam entered into the Beibu Gulf Demarcation Agreement. In May 2002, China and Tajikistan signed the Supplementary Agreement on the Boundary Between the People¡¯s Republic of China and the Re-public of Tajikistan.

China attaches importance to having frontier defense exchanges and cooperation with neighboring countries, and jointly maintaining order along the borders. China has signed treaties, agreements and under-standings with Mongolia, Russia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Laos and India on border control and handling border affairs, setting up confi-dence-building measures, and preventing dangerous military activities.

Since 1995, the Chinese Ministry of National Defense has signed frontier cooperation agreements with the General Administration of Frontier Defense of the Russian Federation and the Administration of Frontier Guards of Mongolia. In January 2002, Chinese Ministry of National Defense and the National Security Commission of Kazakh-stan signed the Frontier Defense Cooperation Agreement Between China and Kazakhstan.

 In April 2002, China sent a delegation to at-tend the meeting of leaders of frontier defense authorities of the member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) held in Alma-Ata. At the meeting, the leaders of the frontier defense au-thorities of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan agreed that the frontier defense authorities of the five states will, within the framework of the relevant documents of the SCO and in accordance with the circumstances of the areas of common borders of the member states, strengthen exchanges of information in respect of frontier defense; further deepen corresponding bilateral and multilat-eral cooperation; take effective measures for the joint fight against terrorism, separatism and extremism, and for preventing cross-border criminal activities of all forms; safeguard order along the common borders of member states; and provide powerful guarantee for the development of good neighborliness and friendship and economic, trade and cultural relations between the member states.

China's frontier authorities and frontier troops faithfully implement relevant treaties, agreements and understandings, actively establish or improve the systems for consultation, frontier defense talks and meetings with counterparts of neighboring countries, carry out frontier defense con-tacts and cooperation at various levels, and deal appropriately with border affairs. Therefore, mutual understanding, trust and friendship between China and neighboring countries have been increased, and a peaceful and friendly atmosphere along borders has been created.

The Chinese government attaches importance to border area develop-ment and endeavors to promote transportation, communications, culture, education, public health, radio and television services in bor-der areas. Since 1996, the State Frontier Defense Commission has organized the construction of frontier defense infrastructure on a large scale in nine overland frontier provinces and autonomous regions, which has effectively improved the administrative conditions of border areas, and given impetus to economic and social development there. While earnestly performing their duties and unremittingly improving them-selves, the land and sea border defense forces have actively participated in and supported local economic development and the building of spiritual civilization. This has helped to strengthen the relations be-tween the armed forces and the local governments, and between the military and civilians, and to safeguard political and social stability, and the unity of ethnic groups in frontier regions.

Civil Air Defense

China's civil air defense sector implements the concept of people's war. In view of wartime requirements, and based on the economic capa-bility of the country, it relies on the broad masses, gives play to the initiatives of the central and local governments, ensures its readiness to provide effective protection.

The basic tasks of civil air defense in-clude: spreading knowledge of air defense among the people; building all types of protection projects; setting up a civil air de-fense communications and warning system; making plans for personnel and material evacuation; organizing and training specialized air defense contingents; guarding and protecting important facilities of the national economy; and in wartime, organizing and directing people to protect themselves against air-raids. In accordance with the needs for preparation against war, China has identified cities and regions for the conduct of civil air defense, and urban civil air defense is taken as the focal point of civil air defense.

The civil air defense sector adopts a system of joint leadership by the people's governments and military organs. The State Council and the CMC exercise leadership over civil air defense nationwide. Author-ized by the State Council and the CMC, the military area commands exercise leadership over civil air defense in their respective regions. Local people's governments at the county level and above and the corresponding military organs exercise leadership over civil air de-fense in their respective administrative areas.

The administrative organ in charge of nationwide civil air defense is in the General Staff Head-quarters, and those in charge of the military area civil air defense are in the headquarters of the military area commands. The administrative organs in charge of civil air defense at the county level and above are in the people's governments at the same level. The relevant depart-ments in charge of planning, programming and construction in the people's governments at the county level and above are responsible for relevant civil air defense within their respective scopes of du-ties.

The civil air defense sector adheres to the policy of long-term readi-ness, construction of key projects, and combination of peacetime footing with wartime footing, and implements the principle of devel-oping in coordination with economic construction and in combination with urban construction.

In peacetime, the state carries out civil air defense construction, divides cities into different categories for pro-tection, incorporates civil air defense construction into the national socio-economic development program, integrates the civil air defense construction plan into the overall urban development plan, and ensures the smooth operation of the civil air defense communications and warning system.

The state protects civil air defense facilities from be-ing damaged, adopts a preferential policy toward construction of air defense facilities, and encourages and supports enterprises, institutions, social organizations and individuals to invest in civil air defense con-struction projects. In peacetime, the state encourages submission of civil air defense projects to the service of economic development and people's daily needs; the use of civil air defense communications and warning facilities for emergency rescue and disaster relief, and as-sumption by civil air defense organs and specialized contingents of rescue and relief missions assigned by people's governments. To meet the needs of the changing situations, civil air defense will gradually be integrated with disaster prevention, and capabilities in rapid-reaction, damage-resistance, emergency rescue and self-improvement will be enhanced so as to cope with modern warfare and serious disasters and accidents, and effectively protect citizens' lives and property.

China has promulgated and implemented the Civil Air Defense Law of the PRC, and formulated a number of auxiliary civil air defense regulations. China sets store by cooperation and exchanges in respect of civil air defense with countries worldwide, and joined the Interna-tional Civil Defense Organization in 1992.

Participating and Supporting the Development of the Western Region

The development of China's western region is important to the coun-try's economy, politics and national defense. In accordance with the strategic decision for the large-scale development of the western re-gion made by the state, the CMC has established a special leading group and a dedicated office, and made unified arrangements. The PLA and the Armed Police Force have contributed more than 1.5 mil-lion troops and 450,000 motor vehicles and machines to actively participate in and support the western region development efforts.

Concentrating strength on supporting the construction of key in-frastructure projects

The Chinese armed forces regard the participation in the construction of transportation, energy, water con-servancy and communications projects as the focal points in supporting the development of the western region. They have engaged in the expansion or reconstruction of 8 airports, 3 national highways and 4 expressways; the construction of 9 energy facilities such as pipelines, natural gas fields and oil-and-gas fields; the construction of 7 hydropower stations and 19 trunk diversion channels; and the laying of 8 optic telecommunications cables totaling more than 20,000 km.

Taking part in the protection and construction of the ecological environment

The armed forces stationed in the western region have, in order to improve the ecological environment, taken an active part in activities such as forestation, sand prevention and control, closing mountains to facilitate forestation, and restoring the reclaimed land to forests and grasslands.

They have planted trees in an area of more than 3 million mu (one mu equals one fifteenth of a hectare), sown grass on more than 1.8 million mu of land, and restored more than 1.5 million mu of reclaimed land to forests and grasslands. Technical troops specializing in mapping, meteorology, water supply and avia-tion have provided such services as geographic survey, weather forecast, water source exploration, aerial sowing and artificial pre-cipitation in the western region.

Providing talented personnel, and intellectual and technical sup-port

Chinese armed forces have selected and transferred professionals from military colleges and schools, hospitals and scien-tific research institutes to support the development of the western region; arranged, in a planned way, demobilized officers to work in the western region; encouraged or persuaded demobilized soldiers from densely populated areas to settle in the west; and assigned increased numbers of soldiers from the western region to units stationed in developed areas, so as to help the cultivation of talents and the re-newal of thinking for the development of the western region. Some colleges and schools, hospitals and scientific research institutes have actively provided services to the western region by way of jointly running schools, sponsoring short-term training courses, offering dis-eases prevention and treatment assistance, and transferring achievements of scientific and technological research.

Opening and developing military facilities

On the premise of en-suring military security, the armed forces have opened 5 military airports, more than 200 military rail lines, 30 oil pipelines, 70 com-munication lines and more than 100 rear area warehouses for civilian use. Some of the military farms, real estate, support enterprises and army horse-breeding farms have been handed over to local authorities. The armed forces have improved such facilities for preparation against war as air traffic control and frontier defense roads, in order to support the development of the civil transportation.

Carrying out activities to help the poor and needy

The armed forces stationed in the western region have sent officers and men to help repair roads, install electricity lines, sink wells, teach useful skills and develop a diversified economy. These efforts have enabled more than 200,000 local people to get rid of poverty. The armed forces have also helped build or enlarge more than 300 middle and primary schools, and helped more than 50,000 school dropouts return to class. In addition, 100 PLA hospitals have made arrangements with 105 lo-cal county hospitals in the poor areas of the western region to provide assistance.

Sponsor:Department of International Cooperation Ministry of Science and Technoplogy PRC
Maintenance:China Science & Technology Exchange Center
Technical support:Intergrated Information System Research Center Institute of Automation Chinese Academy of Science