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  Aerospace Science and Technology

On Nov 22, 2000 the State Council Information Office issued the White Paper on China''s Space Activities, which is a great and important event in the history of China's space development.

The White Paper on China's Space Activities reveals the characteristics of China's aerospace development in the 21st century. It has great and profound significance in strengthening the international influence and political situation of China''s aerospace industry, promoting the coordinated development of China's aerospace industry, speeding up its industrialization and increasing space awareness of the whole nation.

1. Fully Developing Space Technology, Space Application and Space Science 

For a long time China's space technology, space application and space science have been planned and managed by aerospace science, technology and industrial departments, application departments and space science research institutions respectively. The White Paper for the first time made it clear that China''s aerospace was composed of three large parts: space technology, space application and space science which are closely related and supported each other and coordinated each other. It is not only consistent to the world aerospace concept, but also unifies the understanding of the aerospace category in the country. It particularly describes that the State would work out the unified plan and unified policy for the development of the above mentioned three parts: space technology, space application and space science so as to strengthen the unified management. This will definitely promote the coordinated development of China''s aerospace undertaking.

2. Impelling China's Space Application to Serve National Economy Better

The White Paper on China's Space Activities has closely combined the development of space technology with space application. The way to develop satellite serialization is quite clear. From it the vast deal of users realize that while planning the development of application satellites, China has fully considered the requirements of users for satellite application continuity, which has enhanced the confidence of application departments in the use of home-made satellites. Remote sensing experts from Peking University, Tsinghua University and University of Science & Technology of China were deeply inspired by the issue of the White Paper. These three universities established a coordinating group for the comprehensive utilization of resource satellites and put forward a proposal to set up a Digital Earth and Resource Satellite Ground Station for the Yangtze River and Yellow River basins and the western area of China, hoping to make contributions to the integrated construction of our country''s satellites.

China National Space Administration (CNSA) has actively carried out the space-ground integrated management of satellite development and application, which has been supported and responded by many customers. Since the successful launch of CBERS-1, COSTIND started its demonstrative application project and organized satellite application experts from 14 ministries and commissions to participate in it, which has played an important role in the development and utilization of resources, environment monitoring and harnessing, and desertization monitoring and prevention. Many customers have made long-term plan for the use of resource satellites. 

3. China''s Aerospace Industry Livening in the International Space Arena

Under the guidance of the White Paper on China's Space Activities, China's aerospace industry has livened in the United Nations' multi-lateral and bilateral arena. As a member of UNCOPUOS, China actively has participated in activities of UNCOPUOS, Science and Technology Subcommittee, and Law Subcommittee, strictly fulfilled its related responsibilities and obligations, supported and participated in the implementation of the space application scheme of the UN.

China''s space industry has obtained great achievements in the international exchange and cooperation last year: having made great progress in the Asia-Pacific Multi-lateral Cooperation in Space Technology and Applications, successfully holding the 6th Meeting of the Regional Working Group on Space Science and Technology Applications, UN/ESCAP and Multi-mission Small Satellite Program Meeting. The related member countries had unanimously proposed to set up the secretariat for the Asia-Pacific Multi-lateral Cooperation in Space Technology and Applications, establish a training center for Asia-Pacific space education and training, and a consulting committee, which actively promoting the institutionalization of the Asia-Pacific Multi-lateral Cooperation in Space Technology and Applications and the cooperative development projects.


China National Space Administration and European Space Agency signed the space exploration double-star cooperation agreement. China's Double-Star program has great scientific and application significance. China''s Double-Star program and ESA''s launched exploration satellites are mutually complementary, using their own advantages to form an important earth space exploration system. On the basis of the successful launch and application of the CBERS-1, the Chinese and Brazilian governments are continuously making cooperation in the development of the follow-on satellites so that space technology can further promote the economic development and social progress of two countries. China also held meetings and related technology forums of Sino-Germany, Sino-France, Sino-Russia and Sino-Ukraine Space Cooperation Committees, which have determined some space cooperative areas and projects, vigorously promoted bilateral cooperation and exchange, and made contributions to the co-development of space science, space technology and space application.

4. Arduous Tasks of China''s Aerospace during the 10th Five-Year Plan

During the Tenth Five-Year Plan, aerospace industry has been listed by the State in such important high-tech industries as electronic information, biology, new material, new energy, advanced manufacture, etc.. Under the guidance of the White Paper, COSTIND has worked out and issued the Tenth Five-Year Plan Program for the Civil Aerospace Development, which describes the aims and blueprints of China's civilian space development in the next five years.

During the Tenth Five-Year Plan period, the main task of the civil space industry is to well meet the demands of national economy, and through the design of the standardization, serialization and institutionization establish badly needed application satellite series and timely set up scientific experiment and technological test satellite series. The application satellite series includes the series of meteorological satellites, resource satellites, ocean satellites, environment and disaster monitoring small satellites constellation, and communications satellites series with high capacity geostationary platform as its common platform. 

The development of space industry should serve the development of national economy and the construction of national defence, make greater contribution to national economy, and strive to realize the industrialization and marketing to form a new industry and new economic increasing point. China has taken satellite navigation and positioning, television direct broadcasting, and remote sensing satellite application as the priorities of the industrialization.

The new generation of launch vehicles should be developed with 120 ton liquid oxygen-kerosene rocket engine and 50 ton liquid hydrogen-liquid oxygen engine as their propulsion systems. The new generation of launch vehicles will be developed in serialization through the configuration of three modules with the diameter of 5m, 3.35m and 2.25m. The payload capacity of the new generation launch vehicles into low earth orbit ranges from 1.5 to 25 tons, and into geosynchronous transfer orbit from 1.5 to 14 tons. The new generation launch vehicles with high-thrust, non-toxic, nonpolluting, low-cost and high reliability will improve the international status of China's launch vehicles to rank among the advanced world countries and to meet the requirements of the markets at home and abroad in the next 30-50 years.

China has first class space scientists with advanced technologies. They will make active contributions to the exploration, utilization and development of outer space.

China has developed manned space flight technology for many years, and successfully launched three unmanned spacecraft in 1999, 2001 and 2002. In the Tenth Five-Year Plan period China will realize manned space flight.

China has attached importance to the infrastructure construction, which guarantees the sustainable development of China''s space high technology. China has increased the investment in space industry in the Tenth Five-Year Plan period. While carrying out many high and new technology projects, China has strengthened the research and development of professional basic technologies and technological design, paid close attention to improving test and demonstration capability to improve the development and design of overall space, technology and demonstration.

It is imperative to reorganize the structure, distribution and capability of space scientific and technological industry, and reform the management system and operational mechanism. In the reform we should follow the development principle of combining military technology with civilian production, simultaneously developing both military technology and civilian production, coordinating greatly and making innovation independently? We should grasp the opportunity and reasonably allocate resources to establish a small core, large coordination dumbbell-style scientific research and production system with appropriate scale and reasonable structure.


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Chronicle of Events of China's Space Science and Technology

1. On October 8, 1956, China established a missile research institution—No. 5 Research Academy under the National Defense Ministry with the famous scientist Mr. Qian Xuesen as the president. There were 10 research laboratories.

2. On February 19, 1960, China successfully launched its first experimental liquid propellant sound rocket T-7M designed and developed by China itself. In September, its operational sound rocket T-7M was launched successfully. The overall length is 10.32m and diameter is 0.45.

3. On November 5, 1960, China's first indigenous liquid propellant short-range missile was launched successfully.

4. On June 29, 1964, the test flight of China's first generation short- and medium-range liquid propellant missile developed by China itself was made from Jiuquan launching site in Gansu province and the test got complete success.

5. In January 1965, the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building was set up on the basis of the No.5 Research Academy under the National Defense Ministry to carry out the unified management of the scientific research, design, development production and construction of the missile and rocket industry.

6. On October 27, 1966, China's first missile nuclear weapon was launched successfully. The warhead hit the target accurately and nuclear explosion was accomplished out. The indigenous short- and medium-range missile and atomic bomb constituted China's first generation operational nuclear deterrent force.

7. On December 26, 1966, a short- and medium-range missile developed by China was launched successfully.

8. On January 30, 1970, China's first two-stage medium- and long-range missile made its maiden test flight successfully. This is a breakthrough made by China in its multiple rocket technology, which created conditions for the launch of the medium- and long-range missile and China's first artificial satellite. 

9. On April 24, 1970, China's first man-made satellite Dong Fang Hong-1 was launched successfully on a Long March-1 launch vehicle. The mass of the satellite is 173 kg, its orbit altitude is 439 km/2384 km with the inclination of 68.5? The satellite was operating normally and its performances were stable. 

10. On March 3,1971, China launched Shijian-1 science exploration and experimental satellite with the orbital height of 266km/1826km and inclination of 69.6? The satellite had operated for 8 years, sent back many scientific experimental data and also had accumulated experiences for the development of the satellite with long life. 

11. On November 26, 1975, China launched a recoverable remote sensing satellite on a Long March launch vehicle. After three days?operation, the satellite returned back according to the plan, which made China the third country which achieved satellite recovery technology.

12. On May 18, 1980, China successfully launched an experimental long-range launch vehicle to the predetermined region in the Pacific Ocean. 

13. On September 20, 1981, China launched a group of three satellites (SJ-2, SJ-2A and SJ-2B) with one launch vehicle for the first time. These scientific experimental satellites had been used to observe space physical phenomena, such as magnetic field, charged particles and infrared and ultraviolet. 

14. On October 12, 1982, China carried out the successful underwater launch of a solid missile from a submarine to the predetermined region in an ocean. The recoverable capsule splashed down at the predetermined sea area accurately.

15. On April 8, 1984, China successfully launched its first experimental communications satellite on a Long March-3 launch vehicle. The satellite was positioned at 125 over the equator. After experiencing communications test, the satellite carried out China's partial communications services.

16. On October 25, 1985, the Chinese government announced that the Long March launch vehicle family would offer commercial satellite launch services for foreign users.

17. On February 1, 1986, China successfully launched its first operational communications broadcast satellite, DFH-2. The satellite was positioned at 103?E over the equator. On March 7, and December 22, 1988, and On February 4, 1990, China successfully launched three DFH-2A operational communications broadcast satellites respectively. These satellites were positioned at 87.6, 110.5?E and 98?E respectively.

18. In March , 1986, China and Sweden reached an agreement to launch the Swedish Freja on a LM-2C launch vehicle into polar orbit. This is the first agreement after China announced that the Long March launch vehicle family would provide international satellite commercial launch service which indicates that China began to enter the international space commercial launch market.

19. On September 7, 1988, China launched its first experimental SSO meteorological satellite, the FY-1. China Meteorological Satellite Ground Receiving Station received visible and infrared pictures with high resolution transmitted by the satellite.

20. On April 7, 1990, China successfully launched the Asiasat-1 communications satellite manufactured by American Hughes Co.. The accuracy of orbital injection had reached the advanced international level. The satellite was positioned at 105.5?E on April 11.

21. On July 16, 1990, China's newly developed heavy LM-2E strap-on launch vehicle made its maiden flight successfully. Its LEO payload capacity is 7t. It made China the fourth country in launching the heavy satellite. During the launch the LM-2E sent the Australian Optus Dummy satellite and Pakistani Badr-A into space.

22. On March 22, 1992 when China used the LM-2E launch vehicle to launch an Australian communications satellite, the failure of the ignition control system led to the emergency of the launch vehicle and the launch was unsuccessful. But the launch vehicle, satellite and launching equipment were not damaged. Since then China's space science, technology and industry system decided March 22 as the Space Quality Day

23. On August 9, 1992, China successfully launched a second generation recoverable scientific exploration and technological experimental satellite on a newly developed LM-2D launch vehicle. The satellite was returned back on April 25, the same year safely. This satellite operated for the longest time in space among the 13 recoverable satellites launched by China.

24. On August 14, 1992, China launched Australian Aptus-B1 communications satellite on a LM-2E launch vehicle which indicated that China can launch the large commercial satellite.

25. On June 6, 1993, China established China Aerospace Corporation and China National Space Administration. 

26. On February 8, 1994, China's new launch vehicle, the LM-3A was launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center successfully, sending the SJ-4 satellite and a dummy satellite into preset space orbit. The payload capacity of the launch vehicle into GTO is 2.6t. 

27. On July 21, 1994, China successfully launched Apstar-1 communications satellite on a LM-3 from Xichang Satellite Launch Center and the satellite accurately entered the preset orbit. The successful launch of the satellite has a great significance to promoting the development of economy in the Asia-Pacific region and providing TV, broadcast and communications services.

28. On November 30, 1994, China successfully launched a new generation communications satellite, DFH-3 on a LM-3A from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, but the satellite failed to be positioned because of the propellant leakage. On May 12, 1997, the second DFH-3 satellite was launched on a LM-3A launch vehicle, and on May 20 the satellite was positioned successfully.

29. On February 15, 1996, China's new LM-3B launch vehicle failed to be launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. This is the first launch of the launch vehicle. On August 20, 1997, the LM-3B was launched successfully. The GEO payload capacity of the LM-3B launch vehicle reached 5.1 t. 

30. On June 10, 1997, China's first generation geostationary orbit meteorological satellite developed indigenously was launched on a LM-3 launch vehicle from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. The satellite was positioned successfully on June 17. On June 25, 2000, the second FY-2 satellite was launched successfully.

31. On December 8,1997, China's LM-2C/SD was launched from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, sending two Iridium satellites of the Iridium global mobile communications system into the preset orbit. By June 12, 1999, the LM-2C/SD launch vehicle had been launched for 6 times, together launching 12 satellites for the Iridium network.

32. On January 26, 1999, the first satellite, Rosat-1 developed by China's Taiwan province was launched on a Lockheed Martin's Athena-1 launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral, Florida, U.S.. U.S. TRW Co. participated in the development of the satellite. 

33. On May 10, 1999, China's LM-4B launch vehicle made its maiden flight successfully from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, sending the FY-1 meteorological satellite and SJ-5 scientific experimental satellite into SSO. The SJ-5 is a small scientific experimental satellite which was the first one to have adopted the common platform concept design in China.

34. On July 1, 1999, the inaugural meeting of ten large military industrial corporations was held solemnly, and China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation and China Aerospace Machinery and Electronics Corporation (The latter was renamed China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation on September 6, 2001.) were established.

35. On August 2, 1999, China made a successful test flight of the new long-range surface to surface missile in its inland.

36. On October 14, 1999, the CBERS-1 earth resource remote sensing satellite jointly developed by China and Brazil was launched successfully from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on a LM-4B launch vehicle. The satellite is China's first generation transmission-type earth remote sensing satellite.

37. On November 20, 1999, China's first Shenzhou experimental spacecraft developed independently by China itself was launched from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on a newly developed LM-2F strap-on launch vehicle, successfully carrying out China's first unmanned flight test. The spacecraft returned back next day.

38. On October 31, 2000, China successfully launched its first navigation and positioning satellite, Beidou navigation experimental satellite on a LM-3A. On December 21, the same year, China successfully launched the second Beidou experimental navigation satellite. These two satellites constitute Beidou navigation system, indicating that China has the first generation satellite navigation and positioning system independently developed by China itself. The system is the regional navigation system which can provide all weather and around-the-clock satellite navigation information, mainly providing navigation services for highway traffic, railway transportation and marine operation, etc..

39. On November 22, 2000, the State Council issued the White Paper on China's Space Activities. The White Paper is divided into four parts:Ⅰ. Aims and Principles; Ⅱ. Present Situation; Ⅲ. Future Development;Ⅳ.International Cooperation. The White Paper summarized China's achievements in the fields of space technology, space application and space science, and described the development targets, development concepts, international cooperation principles, policies, main activities and priorities of China space undertakings. The issuance of the White Paper fully reflects the interest and support of the Chinese government to space undertaking.

40. On January 10, 2001, China successfully launched Shenzhou-2 unmanned experimental spacecraft from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on a LM-2F launch vehicle. After completing planned space scientific and technological experimental missions the spacecraft accurately returned back in the middle area of Inner Mongolia. This is the second flight test of China's manned space flight project. Shenzhou-2 is China's first flight model of the unmanned spacecraft.

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Space Technology -- General

1. Man-made Satellites: China's first man-made satellite, the "Dongfanghong-I" was successfully developed and launched on April 24, 1970, making China the fifth country in the world with such capability. By October 2000, China had developed and launched 47 satellites of various types, with a flight success rate of over 90%. Altogether, four satellite series have been initially developed in China, namely, recoverable remote-sensing satellites, "DFH (Dongfanghong)" telecommunications satellites, "FY (Fengyun)" meteorological satellites and "SJ (Shijian)" scientific research and technological experiment satellites. The "ZY (Ziyuan)" earth resource satellite series will come into being soon. China is the 3rd country in the world to have mastered the technology of satellite recovery, with the success rate reaching the advanced international level, and the 5th country capable of developing and launching geo-stationary telecommunications satellites independently. The major technological index of China's meteorological and earth resource satellites has reached the international level of the early 1990s. The six telecommunications, earth resources and meteorological satellites developed and launched by China in the past few years are in stable operation, and have generated remarkable social and economic returns.

2. Launching Vehicles: China has independently developed the "Long-March" rocket group, containing 12 types of launching vehicles capable of launching satellites to near-earth, geo-stationary and sun-synchronous orbits. The largest launching capacity of the "Long-March" rockets has reached 9,200 kg for near-earth orbit, and 5,100 kg for geo-stationary transfer orbit, able to basically meet the demands of customers of all kinds. Since 1985, when the Chinese government announced to put the "Long-March" rockets into the international commercial launching market, China has launched 27 foreign-made satellites into space, thus acquiring a share of the international commercial launching market. Up to now, the "Long-March" rockets have accomplished 63 launches, and made 21 consecutive successful flights from October 1996 to October 2000.

3. Launching Sites: China has set up three launching sites in Jiuquan, Xichang and Taiyuan, which have successfully accomplished various kinds of test flights of launching vehicles and launches of a variety of satellites and experimental spacecraft. China's spacecraft launching sites are capable of making both domestic satellite launches and international commercial launches, and carrying out international space cooperation in other fields.

4. TT&C: China has established an integrated TT&C network comprising TT&C ground stations and ships, which has successfully accomplished TT&C missions for near-earth orbit and geo-stationary orbit satellites, and experimental spacecraft. This network has acquired the capability of sharing TT&C resources with international network, and its technology has reached the international advanced level.

5. Manned Spaceflight: Initiating its manned spaceflight program in 1992, China has developed a manned spacecraft and high-reliability launching vehicle, carried out engineering studies in aerospace medicine and aerospace life science, selected reserve astronauts and developed equipment for aerospace remote-sensing and aerospace scientific experiments. China's first unmanned experimental spacecraft - "Shenzhou"- was successfully launched and recovered November 20-21, 1999, symbolizing a breakthrough in the basic technologies of manned spacecraft and a significant step forward in the field of manned spaceflight.

Space Applications

China attaches importance to developing all kinds of application satellites and satellite application technology, and has made great progress in satellite remote-sensing, satellite telecom and satellite navigation. Remote-sensing and telecommunications satellites account for about 71% of the total number of satellites developed and launched by China. These satellites have been widely utilized in all aspects of economy, science and technology, culture, and national defense, and yielded remarkable social and economic returns. Related departments of the state have also made active use of foreign application satellites for application technology studies, with satisfactory results.

1. Satellite Remote-Sensing: China began to use domestic and foreign remote-sensing satellites in the early 1970s, and eventually carried out studies, development and promotion of satellite remote-sensing application technology, which has been widely applied in meteorology, mining, surveying, agriculture, forestry, water conservancy, oceanography, seismology and urban planning.

To date, China has established the National Remote-Sensing Center, National Satellite Meteorology Center, China Resources Satellite Application Center, Satellite Oceanic Application Center and China Remote-Sensing Satellite Ground Station, as well as satellite remote-sensing application institutes under related ministries of the State Council, some provinces and municipalities and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. These institutions have made use of both domestic and foreign remote-sensing satellites to carry out application studies in weather forecasting, territorial survey, agricultural output assessment, forest survey, natural disaster monitoring, maritime forecasting, urban planning and mapping. The regular operation of the meteorological satellite ground application system, in particular, has greatly improved the accuracy of forecasting disastrous weather and significantly reduced the economic losses of the state and people from such weather.

2. Satellite Telecommunications: In the mid-1980s, China began to utilize domestic and foreign telecommunications satellites, and developed related technology to meet the increasing demands of the development of telecommunications, broadcasting and education. In the field of fixed telecom service, China has built scores of large and medium-sized satellite telecom earth stations, with more than 27,000 international satellite telephone channels connected to more than 180 countries and regions worldwide. The establishment of the domestic satellite public communication network, with more than 70,000 satellite telephone channels, has initially solved the problem of communication in remote areas.

 The VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) communication service has developed very rapidly in recent years. There are now in the country 30 domestic VSAT communication service providers and 15,000 small station users, including over 6,300 two-way users. More than 80 specialized communication networks for dozens of departments like finance, meteorology, transportation, oil, water resources, civil aviation, power, public health and the media have been built, with over 10,000 VSAT. A satellite TV broadcasting system covering the whole world and a satellite TV education system covering the whole country have been established. China started to use satellites for TV broadcasting in 1985, and has formed a satellite transmission network with 33 telecommunications satellite transponders responsible for transmitting 47 TV programs and educational TV programs of CCTV (China Central Television) and local TV stations throughout the country, 32 programs of the Central Broadcasting Station domestically and abroad, and about 40 local broadcasting programs.

Ever since the opening of satellite education TV broadcasting programs over a dozen years ago, more than 30 million people have got college or technical secondary school education and training through it. China has also set up a satellite direct broadcasting experimental platform to transmit CCTV and local satellite TV programs by digital compression to the vast rural areas which wireless TV broadcasting cannot cover. In this way, China's TV broadcasting coverage has been greatly increased. China has about 189,000 satellite TV broadcasting receiving stations. The China broad-band multi-media education satellite transmission network has also been established on the satellite direct broadcasting experimental platform to provide comprehensive remote education and information technology services.

3. Satellite Navigation: In the early 1980s, China began to utilize other countries' navigation satellites and develop the application technology of satellite navigation and positioning, which is now widely used in many fields including land survey, ship navigation, aircraft navigation, earthquake monitoring, geological calamity monitoring, forest fire prevention and control, and urban traffic control. After joining the COSPAS-SARSAT in 1992, China established the Chinese Mission Control Center, thus greatly improving the capability of the emergency alarm service for ships, aircraft and vehicles.

Space Science

China started to explore the upper atmosphere using rockets and balloons in the early 1960s. In the early 1970s, China began to utilize the scientific exploration and technological testing satellites of the "SJ" group in a series of space explorations and studies, and acquired a large amount of valuable data about the space environment. Research on space weather forecasting and related international cooperation have also been carried out in recent years.

In the late 1980s, recoverable remote-sensing satellites were employed for various kinds of aerospace scientific experiments, and have yielded satisfactory achievements in crystal and protein growth, cell cultivation and crop breeding. Innovative achievements have been scored in the study of basic theory of space science. The establishment of advanced and open state-level laboratories specializing in space physics, micro-gravity and space life science, and the founding of the Space Payload Application Center provide the country with the basic ability to support aerospace scientific experiments. The "SJ" group has been used in recent years to detect charged particles in terrestrial space and their effects. In addition, the first micro-gravity space experiment on double-layer fluid was accomplished, in which remote operation of space experiments was realized.

With the establishment and improvement of China's socialist market economic mechanism, the state guides the development of space activities through macro-control, makes overall plans for the development of space technology, space application and space science, promotes the R&D and system integration of important space technologies and the application of space science and technology in the fields of economy, science and technology, culture, and national defense. The state has also carried out reforms in the space science and technology industry to achieve sustainable development of the space industry. The state has strengthened legislation work and policy management, enacted laws and regulations and promulgated industrial policies for the space industry to ensure orderly and standardized development of space activities.

Research institutions, industrial enterprises, commercial enterprises and institutions of higher learning are encouraged to make full use of their advantages and participate in space activities under the guidance of the state's space policies. The state supports renovation in space technology and the establishment of a space technological renovation system with Chinese characteristics, in the aim to improve the self-renovation capability and industrialization of space activities. Space activities for public welfare and R&D work with commercial prospects are also supported by the state, and the state's supervision over space activities is being continuously strengthened. The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is China's governmental organization responsible for the management of satellites for civilian use and inter-governmental space cooperation with other countries.

(Source: Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, November 2000, Beijing)

Sponsor:Department of International Cooperation Ministry of Science and Technoplogy PRC
Maintenance:China Science & Technology Exchange Center
Technical support:Intergrated Information System Research Center Institute of Automation Chinese Academy of Science