¡°New century, new S&T, and new accomplishments¡± is a theme slogan raised at an S&T show recently staged in Beijing for the accomplishments achieved during the 10th fFve-year period. The show displays the splendid fruits China has harvested in S&T area in the first 5 years of the new century. Exploring the unknown, and paving for the future embodies Chinese people¡¯s confidence in a bright S&T future that is built upon 5-year rich accumulation.
1) Gasping strategic opportunities with a clearly defined thinking line. During the 10th Five-year period, the Chinese government made a readjustment of the general line guiding the S&T development in the country. Proprietary innovation becomes an underlined priority, with a weighted deployment on advancing industrial technology upgrading, and enhancing the sustainable S&T innovation capacity. These constitute a new line threading the overall S&T development pattern for the 10th Five-year period.
Under the new initiative, China¡¯s S&T authorities develops a talent strategy, in an attempt to be part of the international competition for talented people, and to absorb, discover, and bring up more talented people. In the meantime, China works on a patent strategy to intensify the management of intellectual property, in an effort to encourage and facilitate innovations, and turn new findings into core competitiveness. Technical standard strategy is also defined to establish China¡¯s own technology standard system, in a move to be part of the regulated competition, and strive for a leading position in S&T development.
Effort has also been made to readjust the planning management modality, and introduce a classified management modality under the national S&T planning system. In the area of planning restructuring, strengthening strategic technology development, and stressing the state will and proprietary innovations have resulted in a line of S&T programs, including the National 863 Program, the National 973 Program, and the National Key Technology Program. Plus two infrastructure initiatives, namely building up a desirable industrial environment for S&T activities, and R&D infrastructure construction, a planning framework of three plus two is formed to optimize the distributions of S&T resources. To highlight the priorities, and integrate innovation efforts, the Ministry of Science and Technology, in collaboration with other government agencies, initiated 12 major special projects.
2) Enhancing the comprehensive strength through a deepened reform. During the 10th Five-year period, China has witnessed a large increase of investment in R&D activities, from RMB 89.6 billion in 2000 to RMB 184.3 billion in 2004, raising the weight in GDP from 1% to 1.35%.
During the same period, China kicked off a full-fledged construction of S&T infrastructure platforms, which facilitates the sharing of instruments, literatures, and data. As of the end of 2004, 19 large national science projects, including Beijing Positron and Electron Collider, have been staged, with the number of national key labs reaching 183. 149 national engineering technology research centers were established in major industrial sectors and 26 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions.
China also achieved noticeable results in building up a desirable industrial environment for S&T activities. Up to date, China has established over 500 high tech pioneering service centers, second only next to the United States, in terms of the number of such centers. As of 2004, 1,218 productivity promoting centers have provided services for 92,133 enterprises, which brought up additional sale revenues of RMB 64.2 billion, and taxes and profits of RMB 8.81 billion to the latter. The nationwide technology contracts signed during the 10th five-year period amounted to RMB 408.5 billion, 2.5 times that of the 9th Five-year period. During the same period, China¡¯s high tech industry enjoyed a fast expanded scale, with the total volume of high tech import and export rising from 18.3% in the nation¡¯s total package for import and export in 2000 to 28.3% in 2004.
China has witnessed a remarkably enhanced comprehensive S&T strength since the 10th Five-year period, with a greatly lifted proprietary innovations capacity. China¡¯s competitiveness in the world also advanced from 30th in 2000 to 24th in 2004, with its overall S&T strength topping the developing countries.
3) Developing key technologies and serving for S&T activities. During the 10th Five-year period, China has seen a steadily lifted basic research capacity, harvested with a range of major scientific findings and inventions. Chinese scientists have made outstanding contributions to sequence of human genome, plant genome, microbes genome, and domestic silk worm genome. Chinese scientists¡¯ findings in mathematics mechanization, and origin of Chengjiang vertebrates colony have won the recognition of the world science community.
In the high tech area, Chinese scientists landed breakthroughs in a range of key technologies for super integrated circuit, high performance computer, high speed broadband network, electric automobiles, clean energy among many others. China has rolled out proprietary high tech products, established precursor industries of international competitiveness, and nurtured out new economic growth points.
While making the innovative capacity of the manufacturing industry a cutting point, China has achieved numerous major S&T accomplishments in the areas of information engineering, programmed machine tools, intelligent engineering equipment, and automatic production line. Chinese engineers also rolled out a line of major proprietary facilities and equipment of market competitiveness, which accelerates the stride of transforming traditional industries with high technology.
During the 10th Five-year period, China¡¯s S&T development had a weighted focus on raising the quality of people¡¯s life, and promoting a harmonized development between man and nature. China has made noticeable progresses in implementing the sustainable development strategy, major diseases prevention and control, development of new drug and medical facilities and materials, improvement of ecological environment, efficient resources development and utilization, food safety, and production safety.